What is meant by the term “Cyber”?
Cyber means anything that is digital. It can be your devices that are performing the digital computation. Anything that is related to the Internet falls under the category of Cyber.
How big Cyber Space is?
While Cyberspace should not be confused with the internet, the term is used to represent identities or events that take place in the communication process itself. For Example, think of a Website, it also exits in CyberSpace. Social interactions whether you do a post, upload a picture or even share a message, these all social interactions exist in Cyber Space and this Cyber Space is expanding not in minutes but in seconds. These all events are taking place not on their physical locations but “in cyberspace”. You can see an image below consisting of various digital devices that are connected through the internet. Their whole communications exist in cyberspace.
Why does cyber security matters?
These are some of the reasons you should think about having to learn cyber security, whether you want to do so for personal use, to advance in your career, or to start a new one:
- Let’s face it; we live in a digital world. The internet, mobile computing, and electronic media have started to take over our work lives, personal lives, and financial lives. As a result, we are more exposed than ever to malicious attacks, privacy invasions, fraud, and other threats. This is why having a secure and well-organized digital world depends so heavily on cyber security.
- It is estimated that between 2019 and 2023, cyber-crimes would cost the world $5.2 trillion, necessitating a $10 billion global investment in cyber-security measures by 2027 to guard against such catastrophic losses.it means the job pay is good and increasing
- According to reports, there are currently more than 3.5 million cyber security jobs open worldwide. Information technology, healthcare, finance, communications, the industrial sector, etc. are all affected, but there aren’t nearly enough skilled workers to meet the demand.
- Not only large businesses and organizations are impacted. For instance, it only takes five minutes to hack a device that is connected to the internet, Its effects are felt both in the physical and digital worlds.
- Continual acquisition of new knowledge, working to comprehend new technologies you’ll constantly face new obstacles and be presented with a wide range of opportunities.
The Cyber Security Enhancement Act and the SPY ACT
The Cyber Security Enhancement Act of 2002 mandates life sentences for hackers who “recklessly” endanger the lives of others. Malicious hackers who create a life-threatening situation by attacking computer networks for transportation systems, power companies, or other public services or utilities can be prosecuted under this law.
The Securely Protect Yourself Against Cyber Trespass Act of 2007 (SPY ACT) deals with the use of spyware on computer systems and essentially prohibits the following:
- Taking remote control of a computer when you have not been authorized to do so.
- Using a computer to send unsolicited information to people (commonly known as spamming).
- Redirecting a web browser to another site that is not authorized by the user.
- Displaying advertisements that cause the user to have to close out of the web browser (pop-up windows).
- Collecting personal information using keystroke logging.
- Changing the default web page of the browser.
- Misleading users so they click on a web page link or duplicate a similar web page to mislead a user.
The SPY ACT
The SPY ACT is important in that it starts to recognize annoying pop-ups and spam as more than mere annoyances and as real hacking attempts. The SPY ACT lays a foundation for prosecuting hackers that use spam, pop-ups, and links in emails.
18 USC, 1029 and 1030
The U.S. Code categorizes and defines the laws of the United States by titles. Title 18 details “Crimes and Criminal Procedure.” Section 1029, “Fraud and related activity in connection with access devices,” states that if you produce, sell, or use counterfeit access devices or telecommunications instruments with the intent to commit fraud and obtain services or products with a value of over $1,000, you have broken the law.
Section 1029 criminalizes the misuse of computer passwords and other access devices such as token cards. Section 1030, “Fraud and related activity in connection with computers,” prohibits accessing protected computers without permission and causing damage. This statute criminalizes the spread of viruses and worms and the breaking into computer systems by unauthorized individuals.
U.S. State Laws
In addition to federal laws, many states have their laws associated with hacking and auditing computer networks and systems. When performing penetration testing, review the applicable state laws to ensure that you are staying on the right side of the law. In many cases, a signed testing contract and an NDA will suffice as to the intent and nature of the testing. The National Security Institute has a website listing all the state laws applicable to computer crimes.
The URL is: CLICK HERE FOR MORE INFORMATION.
The Freedom of Information Act (FOIA)
The Freedom of Information Act (5 USC 552), or FOIA, makes many pieces of information and documents about organizations public. Most records and official documents are available through the FOIA. When conducting reconnaissance and gathering information about a potential target, any information obtained through this act is fair game.
The Privacy Act of 1974
The Privacy Act of 1974 (5 USC 552a) guarantees the nondisclosure of personal information and prevents government agencies from doing so without the person whose information is in question’s prior written consent.
The USA PATRIOT Act
The government now can intercept voice communications in cases involving computer hacking and other types of investigations thanks to the Act, officially known as the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism (USA PATRIOT) Act of 2001. Although the Patriot Act was primarily passed to address terrorist activity, it can also be seen as a wiretap tool to identify and stop hacking attempts.